The issue of prisoners’ rights has for a long time been a critical issue for discussion. This is because people who get to prison are considered as errant members in society and are hence treated differently in the society. Human rights activists have for this reason risen to contest this trend, as they claim that the sole purpose of prisons and correctional systems is to help the errant individuals reform their behaviors, and not just to punish them. Various studies and publications have been made to study the rights of prisoners and what should be done to ensure these rights are safeguarded. However, it is notable that previously, the rights of prisoners have not been taken care of, thereby implying that human rights departments have not been keen in protecting the rights of detainees. This paper review’s two articles on human rights of prisoners, and hence discusses the whole issue and how it has been handled in the past.
One of the reasons as to why prisoners had very few rights previously is because legal systems had not developed. On the same note, there was little humanitarian awareness, which led to a situation where human rights were not fought for adequately. The state had much power and could handle citizens without checks (Neier, 2003). However, with the developments that have been witnessed ion the recent past, there has been increased awareness of the importance of guarding human rights, which has become a reprieve to prisoners, whose voice can be heard through activism.
According to the American Civil Liberties Union, issues to do with gender-based violence, racism and imbalance on social lines were unbelievably high (n.d). This led to a situation where on individual belonging to a lower social class could quickly find themselves behind bars. I agree with the author because due to the fact that society regarded prisoners as less useful individuals, their welfare was not taken seriously. This implies that they had very few rights in regards to freeing themselves and speaking out about their feelings. Besides, whether or not they would reclaim their freedom depended on whether they were aligned with superior individuals in those societies.
Most countries have experienced a remarkable development in their constitutions. It is critical to observe that with as good constitution, it is easy to safeguard the rights of an individual. This is because a bill of rights is outlined by the Constitution. There have been attempts to involve the judiciary in monitoring what happens in prisons, but this has always faced challenges due to criticism and various hurdles (Livingstone, n.d). I agree with the author because there has been an increased observance of human rights due to these developments, including those rights of people who have been sentenced. An example is the diminishing popularity of death penalties, which has been greatly contested as being against the rights of prisoners. Besides, there have been incidences where prison officials have lost their jobs and others prosecuted, which is a significant signal on the increased watchfulness of the rights of prisoners.
It is evident that in the previous era, the rights of prisoners have been at stake. This was characterized by high levels of mistreatment of inmates, where even accessing the basic needs was a challenge. The positive progress that is being experienced has been as a result of the revision of constitutionals clauses that have brought hope in the future that will see correctional institutions be objective in handling prisoners. This involves making them reform rather than just punishing the offenders. This will lead to transforming the offenders to become better members of society.
System Status Management, peak load staffing, calculated unit hour distribution, and dynamic deployment have been facing hindrances in utilization in spite of their proven effectiveness in the public utility models. The System Status Management is a powerful tool meant for better wages and working conditions of the employees. It is useful in the management of the resources of EMS systems before and between the calls (Stout, 1983, p. 22). The SSM process helps in preparing the response to the EMS calls. It creates and maintains a practical match between demand and supply of the EMS services. The SSM have been underutilized because of the misconceptions about them. For instance, there is a myth about the SSM varying the response zones according to the demand and the time (Stout, 1989, p. 66). The fact is that the response zones are not used in the management of vehicle deployment.
Deployment strategies in the EMS are used to minimize the costs and maximize the coverage. The use of the dynamic deployment in the public utility models of EMS has slowed because of the elementary misconceptions such as the assumption that the vehicles are in constant motion (Fithc, 2002, p. 36). However, the dynamic deployments are advances contrary to the static ones thus increasing efficiency to achieve response compliance. However, the strategy needs proper management and good tools for implementation making leaders reject them. The situation can change in future because of organizations wanting to advance their EMS to achieve efficiency and save on operating costs (Stout, 1987 p. 106).
The concepts of peak load staffing and the system status unit deployment are used in the allocation of the ambulances in the EMS. It shifts the schedules to provide a sufficient number of ambulances in peak load hours. There have been misconceptions by the leaders who believe that the strategies can only be applied in the urban settings thus limiting their concerns. Besides, they fear maintenance of vehicles and equipment. According to expert online , the concept of the calculated unit hour distribution has not been widely applied because of the misunderstanding by most EMS agencies. It is calculated by determining the number of hours that a unit works, and the assignments handled. Leaders fear that the introduction of the unit hour utilization in that they can add up to the operation cost concerning implementation (Davis, 2002, p. 3).
However, the concepts will improve utilization in the future because of the increased awareness of the benefits incurred such as reduction of the operational costs and improvement in the response times (Stout, 1987, p. 106). The practices that are adopted in the system are the System Status Management and the peak load staffing whose results were a reduction in the operational costs and improvement in the EMS response times.
Mechanised lack of success emanating from man problem was the explanation why the area Shuttle Challenger exploded and disintegrated midair. The plane disintegrated scarcely seventy three or more just a few seconds into its trip (Mannan, 2014). The actual instigator regarding the early explosion and disintegration was the O-band set up that was in place (McNeese, 2003). This is relatively perplexing to find out there happened to be early troubles of this over-all viability on the O-jewelry included in the craft. Authorities owned put forth their reservation in regards to the all in all viability of the machine. The NASA managers saw it prudent not to address these concerns prior to the flight that culminated in the deaths of the seven crew members, however.Although explosion was an impending existence, the deaths for the team subscibers were actually not. The error from your O-diamond ring program instigated a sequence reaction that culminated to the deterioration using the create. Pros have postulated by investing in time, the O-diamond ring could possibly have malfunctioned. Provided with this conclusion, there comes in the challenge of team safety measures. Before the establish, NASA got looked into the different opportunities evade device which the create could well be outfitted (Tkatchova, 2011). There have been problems that there will probably be need for the crew to eject belonging to the craft in the event of malfunction.
Mechanised inability emanating from human problem was the primary reason why the place Shuttle Challenger exploded and disintegrated midair. The plane disintegrated seldom seventy about three moments into its air travel (Mannan, 2014). The top instigator for those initial disintegration and explosion was the O-ring platform which was constantly in place (McNeese, 2003). It will be alternatively perplexing to notice there ended up preliminary challenges on the in general viability of this O-engagement rings inside a craft. Leaders have positioned forth their booking with regards to the altogether viability of these device. The NASA managers saw it prudent not to address these concerns prior to the flight that culminated in the deaths of the seven crew members, however.While explosion was an forthcoming occurrence, the deaths this crew associates seemed to be not. The error involved in the O-band approach instigated a sequence outcome that culminated on the exploitation within the create. Industry experts have postulated that with time, the O-engagement ring would have malfunctioned. Provided this realization, there is offered the difficulty of staff health and safety. Prior to the establish, NASA owned looked into the various possibility avoid apparatus which the art is usually outfitted (Tkatchova, 2011). There was anxieties that there is going to be dependence on the team to eject away from the art in the eventuality of failure.